What article of the NEC covers solar photovoltaic systems?
What are the five types of PV systems covered in Article 690?
Though it covers solar power systems, Article 690 is not light reading. Article 690, consisting of eight Parts, applies to photovoltaic (PV) electrical energy systems, array circuit(s), inverter(s), and charge controller(s) for PV systems.
What are the photovoltaic source circuit requirements for an AC module?
(B) Equipment. Inverters, motor generators, PV modules, PV panels, ac modules, dc combiners, dc-to-dc converters, and charge controllers intended for use in PV systems shall be listed or field labeled for the PV application. (C) Qualified Personnel.
What is the maximum dc voltage permitted for a photovoltaic system circuit on or in commercial or industrial buildings?
PV system dc circuits on or in buildings shall be permitted to have a maximum voltage no greater than 1000 volts. PV system dc circuits on or in one- and two-family dwellings shall be permitted to have a maximum voltage no greater than 600 volts.
Which code making panel is responsible for Article 690?
The NEC has two articles that address photovoltaic (PV) systems: Article 690, Solar Electric Systems.
What is PV production?
Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons by the photovoltaic effect. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sunlight which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery.
What is an alternating current photovoltaic module?
An alternating-current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module is defined in Section 690.2 of the 2005 National Electrical Code (NEC) as a “complete, environmentally protected unit consisting of solar cells, optics, inverter, and other components, exclusive of tracker, designed to generate AC power when exposed to sunlight.” ...
Where PV system DC circuits are run inside a building or structure they shall be contained in?
Where PV system dc circuits run inside a building, they shall be contained in metal raceways, Type MC metal-clad cable that complies with 250.118(10), or metal enclosures from the point of penetration of the surface of the building to the first readily accessible disconnecting means.
What is a PV output circuit?
A PV source circuit is the circuit connecting a group of modules together and to the common connection point of the DC system. PV source circuits are usually a string of series-connected modules. ... A PV output circuit is the circuit connecting the PV power source to the rest of the system.
What particles from the sun produce electricity from solar cells?
Sunlight is made up of photons – essentially, little particles of solar energy. When sunlight strikes a PV cell, some of the photons are absorbed. The photons excite the atoms in the silicon layer. The atoms split up and the electrons travel down wires into the home for electricity.Jun 10, 2008
What is a bipolar PV array?
The proposed PV system consists of multiple dc-dc boost converters and one large inverter. The inverter is based on the neutral-point clamped (NPC) technology with a grounded dc-link midpoint. ... The proposed PV system also offers an enhanced MPPT performance and energy yield, due to its multi-MPPT capability.
What article provides guidance for the sizing of module interconnection conductors and how are the conductors sized?
Article 690 states where a single overcurrent device is used to protect a set of two or more parallel-connected module circuits, the ampacity of each of the module interconnection conductors shall not be less than the sum of the rating of the single fuse plus 125 percent of the short-circuit current from the other ...
What is maximum system voltage in solar panel?
Most solar panel manufacturers will specify the panel voltage at maximum power (VMP). This voltage is typically around 70 – 80% of the panel's open circuit voltage (VOC). In Figure 1 the maximum power is just under 140W with VMP just under 32V and IMP just under 4.5A.
What is maximum DC voltage?
The maximum voltage in DC circuit is 282 V.
What is maximum voltage?
Maximum voltage means the maximum voltage which occurs under normal operating condition in the power lines. Sample 1. Maximum voltage means the greatest five-minute mean or average voltage.
Do article 690 requirements apply to AC PV modules?
- Article 690 requirements pertaining to dc pV circuits don’t apply to ac pV modules since ac pV modules don’t have a dc source or output circuit. Figure 690–27 (B) Inverter Output Circuit. The output circuit conductors of an ac module are considered an “Inverter Output Circuit” as defined in 690.2.
What is article 690 of the Energy Safety Act?
- Article 690 focuses on reducing the electrical hazards that may arise from installing and operating a solar photovoltaic system, to the point where it can be considered safe for property and people.
What is article 690 of the ISO 690 code?
- PART I. GENERAL 690.1 Scope. Article 690 applies to photovoltaic (PV) electrical energy systems, array circuit(s), inverter(s), and charge controller(s) for PV systems, which may be interactive with other electrical power sources (elec-tric utility) or stand-alone with or without energy storage (batteries). Figures 690–1 and 690–2
What does the NEC say about solar panels?
- In summary, these installations are complicated and require expertise in several non-electrical areas, which the NECdoesn’t address. Article 690 focuses on reducing the electrical hazards that may arise from installing and operating a solar photovoltaic system, to the point where it can be considered safe for property and people.